Programming 101

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Dec 20, 2017
Human beings used language to communicate with each other, in the same way, languages of one sort or the other are used in order to communicate instructions and commands to a computer.
Languages as a set of sounds, symbols or characters, or a construction of these are used in accordance with certain rules or conventions to communicate between people or between people and machines. A natural language is one commonly used by people in communicating with each other; its rules and vocabulary evolve over a period of time. By contrast, an artificial language is one treated for a particular purpose with usage governed by rules that are established with its creation.
A programming language is an artificial language designed for use by people in instructing machines. Its characteristic is a structure and syntax that prevents ambiguous constructions. With respect to a particular computer system, a programming language is often termed a source language. It is a language in which programs are written to control the operations of the computer system. A source language may either be a low-level language or a high level language. A {high level language is one (e.g. COBOL, PASCAL and FORTRAN) that is designed for ease of use in writing programs and is intended to be used to program computers of different manufacturers and types. The term high-level is used because a whole sequence of computer operation can be specified by writing a single instruction in the language. By contrast, a low level language is one that requires the programmer to tell the computer quite explicitly what is to be done.
1.High Level Languages
In order to simplify and speed-up the preparation of programs, high level languages were developed which are problem-oriented rather than machine-oriented, e.g.COBOL Uses English-like statements for the writing of instructions, and is more applicable to business data processing. The name COBOL stands for Common Business-Oriented Languages.
FORTRAN Is an algebraic language used for preparing instructions in the form of arithmetic formula in scientific applications. The name FORTRAN is an abbreviation for FORmular TRANslation.
ALGOL Stands for ALGOrithmic Language for scientific programming using algorithms.
Other examples of High Level Languages include among others, Pascal, C, C++ and Coral 66.
2.Machine Code Languages
When computers were in early stage of development, all programs had to be written in the machine code. This was the only language of communication available for the programmer. However, for simplicity, the assembly language has been developed, which is usually unique for a processor. It is still a low-level language but easier to write and understand compared with the machine language. It requires the understanding of the architecture of the microprocessor for which it is being written.